Sunday, March 19, 2023

Intel Mac - Install the latest version of Windows using Bootcamp

I have a project I am working on where a computer is needed to be available for any body to use but it has to have Multi-Media software installed and it needs to be useable.  There is no budget for new hardware but there are two outdated iMacs available.  These iMacs were purchased in 2015 and were not being used.  Originally the idea was to have these macs put out with MacOS X because of the reputation apple did have as being used for creative professionals, that was a different era though and those times are gone.  Also with the costs to upgrade the software, staff training, etc.  Since the software we were planning to use was also available on Windows it was decided to go with the latest version of Windows 10 22H2, because of the software that we are currently using for managing our systems.

3.2GHz Quad-core Intel Core i5, Turbo Boost up to 3.6GHz
16GB 1600MHz DDR3 SDRAM - 2x8GB
256GB Flash Storage

You MUST run thought the boot camp wizard.  If you try to make a bootcamp boot disk with a newer version of windows such as 22H2 IT WILL FAIL.  To successfully run though the bootcamp assistant; I had to use a windows 7 iso to create a bootcamp disk and have the Boot Camp Assistant successfully partition the disk.

While the Bootcamp assistant was working I used Rufus to make a second windows boot disk using GPT and UEFI for booting.  Once the Mac OS as finished with the boot camp assistant, it will reboot and if you do nothing it will try to boot off the Windows 7 boot disk that was created.  I put the Rufus boot disk into an open USB port after the boot camp partitioning completed successfully.  Now if you reboot and hold down the "OptionKey" you can select which disk you can boot off of.

The Rufus boot disk shows up as a EFI boot disk and the bootcamp disk shows up as a Windows Disk.  will booted into boot camp and started to run the windows 7 installer I cancelled the install and booted up holding the "Option" or "Alt" key then selected the UEFI boot device (which is our windows 10 usb installer)

After a few minutes it booted into the windows 10 installer

Bootcamp formats the drive for NTFS, you can either keep your mac files or erase the whole thing install windows on the whole system disk.  I deleted all partitions and installed windows on the full disk.  I chose the latter because I need a full fledged windows Machine and don't need Mac OS.  This will NOT affect the system's bootup.  If you need to install Mac OS you will have to make a USB drive or use the cloud recovery mode.

Windows will go though it's full installer; once it gets into windows the bootcamp installer we made should auto launch and install any required drivers.  Once the installation is complete the system will reboot and will work like any other windows system.  Some caveats about using a mac like this.

  1. Wake on Lan doesn't work.  We are using WOL to schedule turning on the systems and shutting them down at night.  While the shutdown is still possible to do; turning the system on is a big time saver for the staff so the shutdown for the system will be disabled.

  2. Cloud Recovery.  Since it is not possible to lockout cloud recovery it is possible for someone to erase the system and reset it to MacOS

  3. Ports are on the back.  The ports are on the back of the imac and are accessible and can be damaged.

Wednesday, February 01, 2023

Setting up a "Guest" or "Visitor" user account on a domain on Windows 10

The requirements

To have a "guest" account on a specific system; but staff on the active directory have to be able to login and access the data they need such as mounted drives and network shares while the "guest" has access to save files to the computer and has no access to any network resources except internet.  The Guest user must be setup as the default user and auto login.  For making this setup I am using an administrator account, specifically a local admin account, and the computer is already attached to the domain.  This computer is also going to be hooked up to a large sound system and will need to be muted on reboot as well at the end of the day if the sound had been left enabled if someone had been using it.  Finally we will have to ensure that no files had been left behind; so we will need a way to delete them.

The User Account

The user account is a domain user; and therefore has to be placed in the local machine guest group for proper privileges to apply.  On the active directory controller I setup a OU called Guest, I will add a GP to this later, but here we want to block inheritance, to stop any global GP from being applied which is what the ! means.  The user and the computer will be placed in the Guest OU.

Auto Login

I don't want to enable a global "guest" or "visitor" account to the entire org which is why I don't have the AD Guest account enabled.  So I created a user in AD called lets call them "org guest"; and on a specific computer that the org guest will be able to login to I also want it to auto login to that account for ease of use.  I also need to ensure that the user is in the proper local group so they get the proper restrictions which is really quite restrictive; I don't want them to be able to access any of the organizations network resources such as any network drives.  All I want them to have is the internet and the ability to copy from a USB drive to the local computer.

So to do this we are going to use regedit to make the following changes to the following registry location.

Computer\HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon

Find the following entries we will need to edit them




if you don't have them we will need to make these entries and set the following values, these are all string entries and will need the following values

AutoAdminLogon and set the Value data to 1

DefaultUserName and set the Value data to $domainuser

DefaultPassword and set the Value data to $userpassword

Add the user in this case "guest" to our guest group on the local machine.

Local Users and Groups

Group Policy

Once complete login to your AD controller and setup the following File Explorer settings under computer management.  Computer Management -> Administrative Templates -> Windows Components -> File Explorer

Essentially the only settings we are changing is the hibernate power options menu and the sleep power options menu.  We are going to set them to disabled.

Now the user Profile in AD requires a bit more configuration.

User Configuration -> Administrative Templates -> Windows Components -> File Explorer

We aren't going to be modifying anything in the following

  • Common Open File Dialog
  • Explorer Frame Pane
  • Previous Versions
We have altered the settings for the file explorer in AD with the following settings as shown below.

With our group policy configured we still have two requirements we have to work though; the audio muting and deleting left over files.  We are going to deal with the left over files first.

I created a folder called "orgtools" working out of the C: drive; I have the folder hidden by default and inside it I have a folder called powershell where I have a bat file setup so the powershell script can run, called deletefiles.bat

The bat file is configured to specifically only allow the single script to run.

Powershell.exe -executionpolicy remotesigned -File ./delete.ps1

The powershell file I have configured to delete files and folders in the user (orgguest) directory.  The file is call "delete.sp1"

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\ -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Desktop -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Downloads -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Documents -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path "C:\Users\orgguest\3D Objects" -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Contacts -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Favorites -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Links -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Music -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Videos -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Pictures -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

Get-ChildItem -Path C:\Users\orgguest\Searches -Include *.* -File -Recurse | foreach { $_.Delete()}

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Desktop -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Downlaods -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Documents -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Music -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Videos -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Pictures -r -force

rm "C:\Users\orgguest\3D Objects" -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Contacts -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Favorites -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Links -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\Searches -r -force

#Delete Browser History, Cache and Cookies

rm C:\Users\orgguest\AppData\local\Google\Chrome\User Data\Default -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\AppData\local\Google\Microsoft\Edge\User Data\Default -r -force

rm C:\Users\orgguest\AppData\local\Mozilla\Firefox\Profiles -r -force

To run the powershell file I have it setup to run on login; but could be setup to run on logoff, restart, shutdown etc.  I have it setup to use task scheduler to run on login of the domain\orgguest user.

And our final requirement is the Auto Mute, we will require some additional software like with my post about creating an Audio PA System; we are going to use NirSoft Sound CommandLine tool.  For this I am putting it in the powershell directory just for convivence sake.

Here is a picture of the directory

So the powershell command is fairly simple.  I called the file mute.ps1

.\svcl.exe /Mute "Speakers"

and again I have a bat file setup to run the powershell script like our delete files

Powershell.exe -executionpolicy remotesigned -File ./mute.ps1

I have setup a task scheduler to run on login and at 11:30 pm; incase the speakers are left on after an event which would typically be in the evening near close.  If there is something during the day it would be up to staff to either reboot the system or mute the speakers after using the system.

So what we have is a system that autoboots and logs in as a specific user who has very restricted access.  Below are some screen shots of the logged in user.  You can connect a flash drive mount it and copy files off

After the reboot; the copied file is gone

If you were to try copy to a folder you don't have access to you would get the following Error.

Friday, January 06, 2023

How to fix Lenovo Laptop Dock Monitor Blinking/Flickering

The organization I work for uses Lenovo Thinkpads and we purchased Lenovo USB C docks for those laptops and on the two of the new Gen 11 Intel laptops and on the Gen 8 Intel laptop using three separate Lenovo ThinkPad USB C Docks specifically the Type 40A9 and Type 40AY.  The laptops when docked and started from a cold boot or a reboot have an issue showing the screen on the monitors connected with DisplayPort.  I don't have HDMI monitors so I can't use HDMI.  

This seems to be a well known issue with Lenovo laptops and Lenovo USB C Docks you can reference the sources below.  This issue has been going on for about 6 months and I have tried all the fixes listed below during the 6 months applying the fixes as soon as they were available. 


The screens are either not showing (just black after about 1 to 3 minutes) or the screen is distorted with running horizontal lines showing only on one screen with screen jitter.

In fact the issue has persisted; with some staff using the devices becoming upset that this issue has not been fixed.  I can't say I blame them, we have been using Lenovo laptops and docks for 8 years and just within the last 6 months this has become an issue that hasn't been resolved.  At least until today with a work around using powershell.  Troubleshooting this issue nothing really came up in the event viewer; I caught an issue with the UCM-USCI ACPI Device not responding and given a error 43 but the dock had not stopped working with the exception of the displays.  At least according to the computer management console.  

View in device manager

Code 43 given randomly

I had noticed Network, sound, keyboard, webcams, mouse all continued to work when the monitors did the "blinking" issue.

Lenovo L15 Gen2 blinking issue on Type: 40AY Dock

For what ever reason when the monitor "Blinks" stops working and stay black until you either unplug the dock and plug it back in or you disable and re-enable the Intel display driver.

So my solution (after making sure everything was as up-to-date as possible with the latest Lenovo fixes) was the following.

Two Scripts.  A bat file and a powershell file.

The bat file allows the running of the powershell script.

---------BAT FILE----------

Powershell.exe -executionpolicy remotesigned -File  ./dock-disable-enable.ps1


-------Powershell File-------

Get-PnpDevice -FriendlyName 'Intel(R) Iris(R) Xe Graphics' | Disable-PnpDevice -Confirm:$false
Start-Sleep -Seconds 10
Get-PnpDevice -FriendlyName 'Intel(R) Iris(R) Xe Graphics' | Enable-PnpDevice -Confirm:$false


Using Task Scheduler, On a user login; I have a script that runs after a 30 second wait to run; However once it runs the script disables the Intel Driver and re-enables it after 10 seconds.  

This has stopped staff from having to unplug and re-plug in their laptops into the docking stations; and are much more happy with going to get a coffee when they login then come back then having to unplug and re-plug in their laptop dock.

Sunday, November 27, 2022

Enabling Nested Virtualization on Hyper-V

To enable nested virtualization on Microsoft Hyper-V; run the following command from Powershell on your Hyper-V host.  

 Set-VMProcessor -VMName syspass -ExposeVirtualizationExtensions $true

If you try running the command while the System is running you will get an error.

When the command is successful; you will be able to run a virtual server on your Hyper-V Host.  You need to run this command on the VM on the host if you are wanting to run Hyper-V nested; KVM or docker on a virtual machine running on the host.

Thursday, September 29, 2022

Information about Meraki Licensing

 When renewing your Cisco Meraki Licensing, it should be done within a few weeks.  I have gotten conflicting information from the sellers and the technical support at Meraki.  According to the Meraki support rep, the license is active from the date of the invoice.

Hello Trevor,

As a reminder, the license key is active from date of invoice complete which was xx/xx/2022. When the license is added to the organization it will have a license start date from xx/xx/2022. If the license is added as a renewal today, the co-termination date would be xxx xx, 2025 (the organization will absorb the current remaining 88 days). I would suggest to add the license as soon as possible.

You may always contact your Meraki Account Manager if you had any questions or concerns about your licensing or order; **** ****

Thank you again, 

Cisco Meraki Support

So if you apply the license where can you find your keys?  Well that can be found in the change log.  When you apply your license you can restore your old license by clicking on the undo arrow at the far right (shown below highlighted in yellow).

You will get a popup with a key you can add to update your license.  If however you miss or close the popup without getting your key you can get the key from the change log.  The key is labelled as an unclaimed license.

You will want to select the latest generated value as shown below

This is an ongoing issue here is a link to a reddit thread where someone had a similar issue.

Monday, September 26, 2022

RDP Periodically Freezes in Windows 10 and Windows Server

I work with windows a lot and have found I had been having connection issues with Remote Desktop on most of my Windows Servers and some Windows 10 Machines.  After some research I found that Windows Server version 1809 (2022) and Windows 10 versions 1806 - 21H2, I have had issues with Remote Desktop freezing.  I would have several stints where the RDP client froze on my workstation or computer I am remoting in from.  This wasn't the only computer that was having an issue.  Another user which also had remote desktop on a workstation (for specific reasons) had also been intermittingly been having the same issue.  I also found that in some instances AV also causing some issues.

After some testing; I found a way to mostly stop the disconnection and freezing from the Remote Desktop Client and Server by Disabling UDP and using only TCP.  To do this we are going to add a registry key and modify a group policy setting.  Let's do the registry key entry first.

On your remote desktop client open and type in the following in cmd promt or powershell as administrator

reg add “HKLM\software\policies\microsoft\windows nt\Terminal Services\Client” /v fClientDisableUDP /d 1 /t REG_DWORD

Now group policy.

Run gpedit.msc. then Navigate to Computer Configuration > Administrative templates > Windows components > Remote Desktop Services > Remote Desktop Connection client.

Enable the Turn off UDP on client setting.

Now that takes care of the remote desktop client.  On the Remote Desktop server on the machine you are wanting to connect to go to:

Computer Configuration > Administrative templates > Windows components > Remote Desktop Services > Remote Desktop Session Host.

Select Transport Type -> USE ONLY TCP

Thursday, September 15, 2022

Issues connecting to DFS shares from a computer

The issue is an odd one.  A single computer connected to a domain lost it's connection to two DFS file shares.  The file shares are wide open for all domain users with nothing that would cause a restriction connecting to the share.  The share shows up in the user's share list but gives a permissions alert when clicked on and displays as 0 bytes or as nothing at all.

Issue: An active directory connected workstation (laptop) won't connect to DFS file shares.  The two network shares in question have read/write and execute privileges' granted to everyone in the organization.  Out of 8 file shares two of them say that domain users do not have permission to access them; and these are shares where everyone has access.

The shares that they should have access to show a 0KB size and they do not have permissions to access the resource but are clearly a member of the security group to get access to the shared resource.

After trying several of the typical ways to fix the issue such as:

  • removing the system from the active directory
  • a disk check and file system scan
  • logging in as a separate user
  • logging into another system with the user where the issue exists.
After several attempts to get it fixed using typical tools; I looked outside the box; the event viewer was not showing anything helpful for troubleshooting so  I disabled offline files to see if I could access the network shares. After doing this it appears I was able to.


The resolution is a little odd I think it was caused by a corrupt DFS Cache which needs to be removed using local computer group policy.  Local computer group policy processing order can be found here.  To summarize the processing order can be seen below.

  1. Local
  2. Site
  3. Domain
  4. OU

Removing the computer from the domain and removing the computer from the active directory was not enough to reset the offline DFS Cache.  I had to enable the prevention of the Offline File use to get the issue fixed.

On the local computer

open gpedit.msc

go to local computer policy -> Computer Configuration -> Network -> Offline Files -> Prevent use of Offline Files Folder

Enable Prevent use of Offline Files folder

Remove the computer from the Active directory, and login as a local user.  Remove any unused users form the System Properties -> Advanced -> User Profiles -> Local User Profiles

Once that was done, I tried to connect to the DFS share from the workgroup computer; using domain credentials and the DFS shares started showing correctly.  Then when I reconnected the system to the domain, all users could access all the DFS shares properly.  After verifying that the share showed up properly; I then set the Prevent use of Offline Files folder to "Not Configured".  Then I verified that the network drives still showed properly and were accessible which they were. It was an odd issue which did not affect the user but a specific machine's connection with specific shares regardless of the user logged in.

Intel Mac - Install the latest version of Windows using Bootcamp

I have a project I am working on where a computer is needed to be available for any body to use but it has to have Multi-Media software inst...